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Dated:  March 24, 2008

Allied Armies
Units & Organizations
of the Italian Campaign
Main Menu

This menu provides details of the organization of the armies that participated in the Italian Campaign.  This page contains some info on the organization of the United States infantry divisions, corps and independant units.  The Menu will direct you to a other pages for the British, Canadian, Polish, and French as well as the Germans and Italians.   The Brazililan Expeditionary Force is included this page as they were assigned to the American 5th Army.

         US 5th Army Units & Organizations   CLICK TO GO

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Polish Brazilians
German Italian

        Skip down to Allied Army Order of Battle for the 15th Army Group.
US Divisions

Regiments & Supporting Units 
   A handy Reference Table of all US Divisions of World War 2 and their associated Infantry Regiments, Field Artillery and Engineer Battalions.  Includes the insignia for every US WW2 division.                

Go to Statistics of Casualties and Troop Strength statistics and information related to the 5th Army.

Units of
Unit Insignia Patches

   The following tables provides a brief description of each Army, Corps and Division that was associated with the American troops.  The first table explains the higher commands that were in Italy, but the main purpose is to provide a quick reference for each of the U.S. divisions.

Command Levels


The 15th Army Group was the highest command in Italy and commanded the 5th US Army and 8th British Army.
 General Mark Clark was promoted to command the Group late in 1944.
 (See Generals page for a photo of commanders from Group down to Division level.)
5th Army
The 5th Army was organized in North African, which shows in the design of the patch.  The design of the patch was submitted by General Mark Clark.  The 5th Army fought along the west coast of Italy, until the Allies reached the Po Valley, where it spread out in both directions. The 5th Army bore the brunt of many of the battles as the British 8th Army was tired from fighting in North Africa.  The current Headquarters of the 5th Army is located in the Quadrangle at Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX.

2nd Corps
The II Corps (usually written with Roman numerals) began its operations in North Africa.  Later, in Italy the II Corps consisted of mostly US troops until more units appeared in 1945. 
4th Corps
The IV Corps arrived Italy in March 1944 and entered combat in June 11, 1944.  Fought continuously for 401 days.    CG was Lt-Gen A. M. Patch and Maj-Gen Wilis D. Crittenberger.
1945 Po Valley Campaign: 10 Mtn, 34, 85, 92, 1 Armd, 6 S. African Armd, 1 Brazilian Divisions,
442 RCT, 473 RCT, 91 Cav Recon Sqd,  751, 756, 758, 760 Tnk Btln, 679, 791, 894 Tnk Destroyer, Legnano Group, 424 FA Btn, 1108 Engr Btn,  84 Chemical Btn, 7th Para? (Brit)
Italy, March 1944 
6th Corps
The VI Corps was the American half of the 5th Army invasion of Italy at Salerno.  It was commanded by Maj. Gen. Ernest J. Dawley and consisted of the 36th and 45th divisions and part of 82nd Airborne Division.   Maj. Gen.John P. Lucas commanded the corps during the Anzio landings.  Later it was composed of American and British. 
 The British 8th Army had fought a long hard campaign in the desert of North Africa before going into Sicily and then to Italy.  The 8th Army landed on the "toe" of Italy a few days before the 5th landed at Salerno.  From there, they progressed up the east coast of Italy.  Many of the experienced units were transferred out of Italy, but the 8th Army remained during entire war.
    CG- General Bernard 'Monty' Montgomery until 31 Dec 1943. Lt.-Gen Sir Oliver Leese.  Gen Sir Richard L. McCreery from 1 Oct 1944 - end of war.

    The American soldier wore a patch on his left shoulder that identified his division or corps or army.  The patches were usually not worn in the field, especially on the outer coat.  Several of the shoulder patches for the divisions, corps and air forces are shown for only the US Divisions that served in the Italian Campaign between September 1943 to May 1945.  For a complete list of all US Infantry Divisions, go to US Divisions - Regiments & Supporting Units.   This link has includes a convenient table for cross-referencing the divisions to their respective regiments and artillery & engineer battalions.
    Shoulder patches shown are not necessarily to scale.  Some pictures were reduced to fit the table.
442nd Regimental Combat Team
12 Air Force

  Go to Allied Army Order of Battle of 15th Army Group for August 1944.   Return to TOP of Page

U.S. Units - Short History
A brief history that helps to identify some of the divisions & units.
Division Level
   Includes history and associated Regiments and artillery units.
    All divisions in GREEN are Infantry.
       Abbreviations:  Rgt = Regiment,    Btln = Battalion,   FA = Field Artillery,  Engr = Engineer Battalion,
                                Armd = Armored,  Mtn = Mountain,   Med = Medical Battalion
  Click on HISTORY for a detailed history of each Division.
3rd "Marne"


The 3rd Division arrived early and participated in Sicily campaign and Anzio. On 10 July 1943, the Division made an assault landing on Sicily, fought its way into Palermo, and raced on to capture Messina.  Nine days after the Italian invasion, 18 September 1943, the 3d landed at Salerno and in intensive action drove to and across the Volturno and to Cassino.  After a brief rest, it held the line at Anzio for 4 months.  On 29 February 1944, the 3d fought off an attack by three German Divisions.  After the fall of Rome, the 3rd began training for landing in Southern France.  On 15 August 1944, the Division landed at St. Tropez, thus beginning its campaign in France.
 This division still exists and saw service in Iraq(2003).
7, 15, 30 Regiments;   10, 39, 41, 10 FA;  3 Engr
Sicily: Sept - Aug 43.  Italy: 18 Sept 1943 - July 1944, France
34th "Red Bull"
The 34th Division was one of the first US divisions to be sent to Europe and saw more combat service than almost any US division; 500 days.  The 34th departed overseas in May 1942 and continued its training in Ireland.  It served in North Africa from 8 Novermber 1942 until May 1943.  The 151st FA landed in Salerno invasion, with the Division following on 25 September.  It took Mount Trocchio after a bitter fight, crossed the Rapido, attacked Monastery Hill, and fought its way into Cassino, being relieved 13 February 1944.  After a rest, it advanced again on 23 May, taking Cisterna and Civitavecchia.  It liberated Livorno, 19 July 1944, and continued on to take Mount Belmonte.  In the Spring attack, it captured Bologna on 21 April, 1945.
CG: Maj-Gen Charles L. Bolte replaced by Gen. Charles W. Ryder
133, 135, 168 Regiments;   125, 151, 175, 185 FA;   109 Engr
36th "Texas"
The 36th Division was one of the divisions that landed in Italy at Salerno. (I had an uncle in 36th who was taken prisoner at Salerno.)  The 36th saw heavy action at San Pietro Infinite and was badly mauled near Cassino during the crossing of Rapido River on January 22, 1944.  It was transferred from Italy to France soon after fall of Rome. 
The division was reactivated in 2004.
141, 142, 143 Regiments;   131, 132, 133 FA;   155 Engr
Landing at Salerno Sept 43 - Aug 44
45th "Thunderbird" The 45th Division was another division that arrived in time to fight in Sicily.  It served as the reserve for the landing at Salerno and later landed on Anzio beach.  After the fall of Rome, the 45th was pulled off the line on June 16 and began to prepare for the landing in southern France. Later, the 45th was involved in the liberation of Dachau concentration camp. 
159, 179, 180 Regiments;   158, 160, 171, 189 FA;   120 Engr
 Sicily & Italy: Sept 43 - Aug 44.  France; Aug 44
85th "Custer"


The 85th Division was another draftee division.  Organized at Camp Shelby, MS, it also trained in Louisana and desert warfare training in Yuma, CA.  The 85th embarked from US on 25 December 1943 and stopped in North Africa before landing in Italy.  It entered the front line on 10 April 1944, north of the Garigliano River.  During spring offense, it took Colacciano, Castellonorato, and Formia, Itri and Terracina.  The 85th pushed through Monte Compatri and Frascati, entered Rome on 5 June 1944, and advanced to Viterbo before being relieved, 10 June.  It lead the center attack on the Gothic Line, 13 September, taking Firenzuola on the 21st. The 85th advanced against heavy resistance taking La Martina and gaining the Idice River Valley road, 2 October, and reaching Mount Mezzano on the 24th.  From southwest of Bologna, it pushed rapidly through the Po Valley, ending the war at
BellunoAgordo area.
[Note:  Don't get this confused with the 85th Regiment of 10th Mountain Division or the German 85th Mountain Regiment.] 
 April 44 - Surrender
337, 338, 339 Regiments;  328, 329, 403, 910 FA;   310 Med
88th "Blue Devil"


The 88nd Division was a draftee division with an outstanding record with 307 days of combat in the Italian Campaign.  After intensive training in North Africa, it entered front lines Garigliano River near Minturno on 5 March 1944.  During the Spring Offensive, it drove through Spigno, Mount Civita, Itri, Fondi, and Roccagorga, and reached Anzio on 29 May.  Most accounts attribute a recon team of 88th Division as the first Allied unit to enter Rome on June 6, 1944.  After a rest, it resumed its attack on  5 July; taking Volterra, Laiatico, Villamagna, and crossed the Arno on 20 July.  Attacked the GOTHIC Line on 21 September 1944 along the Firenzuola-Imola Road.  On 28th, it gained an advanced postition on Mount Battaglia where it held against repeated enemy attacks.  Took Mount Grande and Farnetto on 22 October.  The drive to the Po Valley began on 15 April, where they took Monterumici.  Advanced across the Po, thru Verona and Vicenza, and Dolomite Alps and linked up with Allies in Innsbruck, Austria. 
In September 1944, Maj. Gen. John E. Sloan was replaced by Maj. Gen. Paul W. Kendall.
 March 44 - Surrender
349, 350, 351 Regiments;   337, 338, 339, 913  FA;   313 Med
91st "Powder River"


The 91st Division entered combat for the first time on 12 July, 1944, under the command of  Maj. Gen. William G. Livesay.  This division captured the port of Leghorn on 19 July before reaching the banks of the Arno River.  It was heavily involved in attacks on the GOTHIC Line and the capture of Il Futa Pass.  Its name comes from the Powder River located near Camp Lewis, Washington, where it was organized in WW1. 
361, 362, 363 Regiments;   346, 347, 348, 916 FA   316 Med
92nd "Buffalo"

The 92nd Buffalo Division was an all-black infantry division that was positioned along the west coast of Italy late in 1944.  The 370th Regiment entered combat on the 24 August, 1944 in support of the 1st Armored Division. It participated in the crossing of the Arno River, the occupation of Lucca, and the pentration of the GOTHIC Line.  On 26 December 1944 , the Germans launched Operation WINTERGEWITTER against the sector containing the 92nd Division.  With help from other units, the German counter-offensive was halted.  The 442nd RCT and the 473rd Regiment (see elsewhere in table) were sent to beef-up the 92nd Division.  They entered La Spezia and Genoa on the 27 April, 1945 and liberated several towns along the Ligurian coast. 
Activated: 15 Oct 42, Overseas: 22Sep 44, Inactivated: 28 Nov 45
365, 370, 371 Regiments;   597, 598, 599, 600 FA,  317 Med  +442RCT +473RCT
10th Mountain
The 10th Mountain Division attracted alot of college men who trained in Colorado.  They arrived during winter of 1944-45 in Italy and fought for only 1 week in snow.  They made a reputation for themselves with the Germans.  The Division consisted of 85th, 86th & 87th Mountain Regiments(which can easily be confused with 85th Infantry Division or the German 85th Mountain Regiment, if you aren't careful).  The most famous member of this unit was a Lt. Robert Dole, later US Senator from Kansas. The unit still exists as the 10th Light Division. 
85, 86, 87 Mtn Regiments;   604, 605, 616 FA; 126 Mtn Engr Btn 
Feb 1945 - May 1945
1st Armored
"Old Ironsides"


The 1st Armored Division saw difficult service fighting Rommel's forces in North Africa.   After some rest, it entered its first combat in Italy at Battle of Monte Porchia in January 1944.  The 1st Armored Division remained in Italy throughout the war. 

CG:  Maj-Gen Ernest N. Harmon replace by Gen. Vernon E. Prichard 

6, 11, 14 Armd Batln; 1, 4, 13 Tank Btln;  81 Cav Recon, 16 Armd Engr, 47 Armd Med
The Division had one major re-organization.  Formed into "Combat Commands" for more mobile unit of combined infantry and armor.  Names were CCA & CCB.
No. Africa, Italy Dec 1943 - May 1945
6th South African Armored The 6th South African Armored Division was, of course, from South Africa, but was assigned to the US 5th Army.  The 6th S.F. Armored and the 1st US Armored provided tank support to the infantry divisions. 

Task Forces   - These were armored, mobile units of battalion size or larger.
Task Force 45 Formed by IV Corps Field Order No. 6 on on 26 July 44 and used to relieve other units at the Arno River line.  Formed from the 45th AAA Brigade, 91st, 107th, 434th AA Groups and 751 Tank Battalion and Co. B of 805 Tank Destroyer Battalion.  Many of these units were later formed into the 473rd RCT(see below).  Strength varied from 3000 to 5000 men.
CG: Brig-Gen Paul W. Rutledge.
AA = Anti-Aircraft   AAA = Anti-Aircraft Artillery
"Howze" Comprised chiefly of elements of the 1st Armored Division and part of 7th Infantry Regiment (3rd Division) and attached to II Corps.  Advanced into Rome on 4 June, 1944.
"George" Organized for the push through Po Valley & Vicenza.  More to be added, later.
"Duff" Organized for the push northwest through Po Valley. 
"Rud" or "Rudforce" A task force composed of Polish troops. Named after Gen Klemens Rudnicki.
"Brett" Small force that advanced from Anzio towards Allied front lines during Spring Offensive.  Consisted of 36th Combat Engineer Battalion.  Another un-named task force consisting of elements of the 85th Division, drove towards Anzio to link up the two fronts.

Combat Commands -  See 1st Armored Division description, above.

Battalion or smaller
442nd RCT
  442nd Regimental Combat Team


The 442nd Regimental Combat Team was a unit larger than an infantry regiment that was made up of Japanese-Americans, or commonly referred to as Nissei.  After bombing of Pearl Harbor, many Americans of Japanese descent were confined to secure camps .  The 442nd RCT were recruited from Japanese-Americans from Hawaii and trained in Camp Shelby, MS and with the 85th Division in Louisana.  The unit was sent to Italy, then to Southern France for a time and then back to Italy, the only unit of that size to do so.  The 442nd was assigned to 34th Division from June-August 1944 and the 88th Division during the Rome-Arno Campaign. It served in France(Rhineland) with the 36th Division and with the 92nd Division in Italy during the Apennines and Po Valley Campaign.  The most famous member of this unit is Senator Daniel Inouye of Hawaii.  To see what Hollywood said about them, rent the movie "Go For Broke".    This unit is sometimes refered to as the 100th Battalion (see below). 
Consisted of 3 battalions of 4 companies, each and 522 FA & 232 Engr.
Italy: Jun- Aug 1944, France Aug 1944- Feb 1945, Italy May 1945
1st Special Service Forces A joint American & Canadian commando unit comprised of 1600 men.  Earned its reputation by assaulting Monte la Defensa in Oct 1943.  At Anzio, they replaced the decimated Rangers and held their position.  Concept for the Green Berets.
Activated in July 1942.  Trained at Fort Harrison, Montana.  Departed Italy on 14 August 1944.  Depicted in the movie "The Black Brigade".
Italy:  Salerno & Anzio
473rd RCT
Originally trained as an anti-aircraft unit, they were re-formed as an infantry unit and assigned to support the 92nd 'Buffalo' Division on 24 Feb 1945.
 Formed from HQ 2nd Armored Group, 435th, 434th, 532nd and 900th AAA Battalions.
100th Battalion


A seperate battalion of Japanese-Americans that became a part of the 442nd RCT.  The 100th Battalion became the 1st battalion of the 442RCT or companies A-thru-D.
Current unit is training for Iraq as 100th/442 Regimental Combat Team(Seperate).
91st Cavalry Recon Squadron This was an independant, armored, mobile recon unit.  It should not to be confused with 91st Recon Troop(Mechanized) of 91st Division.  Each infantry division had a recon unit attached to it.  Reference: Organizational table in "15th Army Group".
504th Parachute Infantry Regiment
504th Parachute Combat Team
Intended to join rest of 82nd Airborne Division in Ireland but was sent to Anzio by request of Churchill.  The US paratroopers got the name "devils in baggy pants" from a German diary found at Anzio.
CG- Colonel Reuben H. Tucker
504 PIR, 376 Parachute Artillery Btn and 307 Parachute Engr, Company C.
Tank Battalions Several Tank Battalions served in Italy; some left to go to France.  The tank battalions were assigned to the infantry divisions, as well as the armored divisions for additional fire support.  The following are some of the Tank Battalions that served in Italy.
751, 752, 756, 758(Light), 760
Tank Destroyer Battalions Tank Destroyer Battalions acted as anti-tank support for infantry and armored units. The following are some of the Tank Battalions that served in Italy.
679, 757, 776, 791, 804, 805, 894
Chemical Battalions Chemical Battalions provided smoke screens to conceal troop movement.  There were several chemical battalions in Italy.  The one that was there the longest was the 84th Chemical Battalion.


12 Air Force
442nd Regimental Combat Team

Air Forces
15th Air Force The 15th Air Force was the strategic force that flew 4-engine bombers.  They were based in various airfields around Foggia, on the east side of the "heel" of Italy.  From this location, they could bomb Vienna, Austria, the oil refineries in Polesti, Rumania and Czechoslavkia, and key industrial targets in Hungary, Yugoslavia, and Germany.
12th Tactical Air Force The 12th Tactical Air Force flew low-level, ground support missions with medium bombers. 
Meditteranean Allied Air Force The MAAF, or Mediterranean Allied Air Force, commanded the overall use of air power of the 12th Air Force, 15th Air Force and the British Desert Air Force(DAF)
Desert Air Force DAF was a British Royal Air Force unit located in N. Africa and later in Italy. 


HQ 5th Army - today
Recent photo of the current 5th Army Headquarters at the Quadrangle at Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX.

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Order of Battle
Gothic Line
25th August 1944

After the fall of Rome, the Germans retreated back across the Arno River and into the natural defenses of the Appenine Mountains.  Several experienced Allied divisions were pulled out of Italy and sent to southern France.  The Allied Army launched an attack against the well-prepared GOTHIC Line defenses without a man-power superiority required for victory.
The Germans were able to hold the Allied advance and prevent them from entering the Po Valley before the fall rains and winter came.  This is the organization of the Corps and Divisions during the fall of 1944.  The commanders names are listed in (paranthesis).



II CORPS        (Keyes)

IV CORPS           (Crittenberger)




V CORPS          (Keightley)


II POLISH CORPS           (Anders)

X BRITISH CORPS              (McCreery)


Spring Offensive 1945

5th Army consisted of IV Corps in the west, under Maj. Gen. Willis D. Crittenberger, and the U.S. II Corps in the east, under Maj. Gen. Geoffrey Keyes
    34th Infantry Division
    85th  Infantry Division
    88th Infantry Division
    91st  Infantry Division
    92nd  Infantry Division
   10th Mountain
    1st Armored Division
     442d Regiment
    1st Brazilian Infantry Division
    Italian Legnano Combat Group
    6th South African Armored Division

British Eighth Army, commanded by General Sir Richard L. McCreery, included the Polish 2d Corps and the British 5th, 10th, and 13th Corps, and controlled eight divisions from four different nations, as well as four free Italian battle groups and a Jewish brigade.

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Numbers & Statistics

Go to Statistics page.
  Go to Statistics for more data and tables on troop strength, casualties, logistics, etc. (Boring stuff)

DIADEM - Allied attack on 11 May 1944,
    Fifth Army casualties
             17,931 US casualties: 3,145 KIA,  13,704 WIA, and 1,082 MIA.
            10,635  French (5th Army) casualties
             3,355 British (5th Army) casualties
     Eighth Army casualties 11,639
     Total Allied -  43,000
    German 38,000, for 10th and 14th Armies, not including 15,606 PW.

GOTHIC LINE - Apennine Mountains
September 12-18 - Attack to capture Il Futa Pass
  II Corps(91st & 85th Divisions) had sustained 2,730 casualties.
September 22 - 31, 88th Division suffered 2,105 casualties.
October 4 - 91st Division lost over 1,730 American casualties in just four days.
October 5-9 - Fifth Army units advanced only three more miles, taking an additional 1,400 casualties.
    In Summary, between 10 September and 26 October, 1944
         II Corps(4 divisions) over 15,000 casualties ( 88th Division alone over 5,000 men).
        Eighth Army - 14,000 casualties for about same period.

     189,000 casualties within all US and foriegn units of the US 5th Army.
      American Casualties:  109,642 including 19,475
        Source:  "Calculated Risk" by Gen Clark

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Polish Brazilians
German Italian

Go to Table of US Divisions - Regiments & Supporting Units, for a complete list of US Divisions & Regiments.

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